Herpes simplex virus (HSV) is widespread globally, with both HSV-1 and HSV-2 responsible for genital herpes. During sexual transmission, HSV targets epithelial cells, sensory peripheral pain neurons secreting the mucosal neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), and mucosal immune cells including Langerhans cells (LCs). We previously described a neuro-immune crosstalk, whereby CGRP inhibits LCs-mediated human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) transmission. Herein, to further explore CGRP-mediated anti-viral function, we investigated whether CGRP affects LCs infection with HSV. We found that both HSV-1 and HSV-2 primary isolates productively infect monocyte-derived LCs (MDLCs) and inner foreskin LCs. Moreover, CGRP significantly inhibits infection with both HSV subtypes of MDLCs and langerinhigh, but not langerinlow, inner foreskin LCs. For HSV-1, infection is mediated via the HSV-1-specific entry receptor 3-O sulfated heparan sulfate (3-OS HS) in a pH-depended manner, and CGRP down-regulates 3-OS HS surface expression, as well as abrogates pH dependency. For HSV-2, infection involves langerin-mediated endocytosis in a pH-independent manner, and CGRP up-regulates surface expression of atypical langerin double-trimer oligomers. Our results show that CGRP inhibits mucosal HSV infection by differentially modulating subtype-specific entry receptors and mechanisms in human LCs. CGRP could turn out useful for prevention of LCs-mediated HSV infection and HSV/HIV-1 co-infection.