BACKGROUND: We sought to investigate associations between central hemodynamic parameters (estimated from radial pulse wave analyses (PWAs)), cardiovascular disease (CVD), and albuminuria in type 1 diabetes.
METHODS: We conducted an observational study of 636 type 1 diabetes patients. Central hemodynamics were measured by PWA as central aortic systolic pressure (CASP), central aortic pulse pressure (CPP), central aortic diastolic pressure (CADP), and subendocardial viability ratio (SEVR). CVD included revascularization, myocardial infarction, peripheral arterial disease, and stroke. Albuminuria was urinary albumin excretion rate ≥30 mg/24 hours. We computed standardized odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for sex, age, mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, height, estimated glomerular filtration rate, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) total cholesterol, antihypertensive medication, and smoking. At follow-up, development of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and mortality was traced through electronic medical records.
RESULTS: Patients were aged a mean of 54±13 years, and 289 (45%) were women. The mean ± SD was 118±17 mm Hg for CASP, 75±10 mm Hg for CADP, 43±14 mm Hg for CPP, and 150±32 for SEVR. In fully adjusted models, increased CASP and CPP and decreased CADP and SEVR were associated with presence of CVD (n = 132; P ≤ 0.02) and presence of albuminuria (n = 335; P < 0.001). During follow-up, median (range) (2.8 (0.7-3.8) years), SEVR predicted ESRD or mortality combined (n = 26) after adjustment for sex, age, and MAP (P = 0.001), whereas CASP, CPP, and CADP did not (P ≥ 0.13).
CONCLUSIONS: In type 1 diabetes patients, increased CASP and CPP and decreased CADP and SEVR were independently associated with history of CVD and albuminuria. Furthermore, SEVR predicted mortality and ESRD during follow-up. Future studies are needed to determine whether targeting central hemodynamics improves outcome.