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Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

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Christensen, Dirk Lund ; Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel ; Birkegaard, Louise ; Mwaniki, David L ; Boit, Michael K ; Kilonzo, Beatrice ; Brage, Søren ; Friis, Henrik ; Tetens, Inge ; Borch-Johnsen, Knut ; Vistisen, Dorte. / Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity. I: Annals of Human Biology. 2016 ; Bind 43, Nr. 1. s. 42-9.

Bibtex

@article{27ca9d1c85be4480a704550defc70823,
title = "Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity",
abstract = "BACKGROUND: The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established.AIM: This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among rural Kenyans. BP and pulse rate (PR) were measured while sitting and fasting blood samples were taken for analysis of standard lipid profile. Standard anthropometric measurements were collected. Physical activity energy expenditure was obtained objectively and lifestyle data were obtained using questionnaires.RESULTS: In total, 1139 individuals (61.0{\%} women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p < 0.001). Ethnicity did not modify any of the age-associations with haemodynamic or lipid outcomes. Differences in intercept between women and men were found in all parameters except for diastolic BP (p = 0.154), with men having lower HDL-C but higher values in all other cardiovascular risk factors.CONCLUSION: BP and plasma cholesterol levels increase with age at a similar gradient in men and women, but absolute levels of the majority of the risk factors were higher in men.",
keywords = "Adolescent, Adult, Age Factors, Aged, Alcohol Drinking, Anthropometry, Blood Pressure, Cardiovascular Diseases, Cholesterol, Cross-Sectional Studies, Ethnic Groups, Female, Heart Rate, Hemodynamics, Humans, Kenya, Male, Middle Aged, Pulse, Risk Factors, Rural Population, Sex Factors, Surveys and Questionnaires, Young Adult, Journal Article, Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't",
author = "Christensen, {Dirk Lund} and Daniel Faurholt-Jepsen and Louise Birkegaard and Mwaniki, {David L} and Boit, {Michael K} and Beatrice Kilonzo and S{\o}ren Brage and Henrik Friis and Inge Tetens and Knut Borch-Johnsen and Dorte Vistisen",
year = "2016",
doi = "10.3109/03014460.2015.1013987",
language = "English",
volume = "43",
pages = "42--9",
journal = "Annals of Human Biology",
issn = "0301-4460",
publisher = "Informa Healthcare",
number = "1",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Cardiovascular risk factors in rural Kenyans are associated with differential age gradients, but not modified by sex or ethnicity

AU - Christensen, Dirk Lund

AU - Faurholt-Jepsen, Daniel

AU - Birkegaard, Louise

AU - Mwaniki, David L

AU - Boit, Michael K

AU - Kilonzo, Beatrice

AU - Brage, Søren

AU - Friis, Henrik

AU - Tetens, Inge

AU - Borch-Johnsen, Knut

AU - Vistisen, Dorte

PY - 2016

Y1 - 2016

N2 - BACKGROUND: The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established.AIM: This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among rural Kenyans. BP and pulse rate (PR) were measured while sitting and fasting blood samples were taken for analysis of standard lipid profile. Standard anthropometric measurements were collected. Physical activity energy expenditure was obtained objectively and lifestyle data were obtained using questionnaires.RESULTS: In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p < 0.001). Ethnicity did not modify any of the age-associations with haemodynamic or lipid outcomes. Differences in intercept between women and men were found in all parameters except for diastolic BP (p = 0.154), with men having lower HDL-C but higher values in all other cardiovascular risk factors.CONCLUSION: BP and plasma cholesterol levels increase with age at a similar gradient in men and women, but absolute levels of the majority of the risk factors were higher in men.

AB - BACKGROUND: The relationship between metabolic disease and the non-modifiable risk factors sex, age and ethnicity in Africans is not well-established.AIM: This study aimed to describe sex, age and ethnicity differences in blood pressure (BP) and lipid status in rural Kenyans.SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken among rural Kenyans. BP and pulse rate (PR) were measured while sitting and fasting blood samples were taken for analysis of standard lipid profile. Standard anthropometric measurements were collected. Physical activity energy expenditure was obtained objectively and lifestyle data were obtained using questionnaires.RESULTS: In total, 1139 individuals (61.0% women) participated aged 17-68 years. Age was positively associated with BP and plasma cholesterol levels. Sitting PR was negatively associated with age in women only (sex-interaction p < 0.001). Ethnicity did not modify any of the age-associations with haemodynamic or lipid outcomes. Differences in intercept between women and men were found in all parameters except for diastolic BP (p = 0.154), with men having lower HDL-C but higher values in all other cardiovascular risk factors.CONCLUSION: BP and plasma cholesterol levels increase with age at a similar gradient in men and women, but absolute levels of the majority of the risk factors were higher in men.

KW - Adolescent

KW - Adult

KW - Age Factors

KW - Aged

KW - Alcohol Drinking

KW - Anthropometry

KW - Blood Pressure

KW - Cardiovascular Diseases

KW - Cholesterol

KW - Cross-Sectional Studies

KW - Ethnic Groups

KW - Female

KW - Heart Rate

KW - Hemodynamics

KW - Humans

KW - Kenya

KW - Male

KW - Middle Aged

KW - Pulse

KW - Risk Factors

KW - Rural Population

KW - Sex Factors

KW - Surveys and Questionnaires

KW - Young Adult

KW - Journal Article

KW - Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

U2 - 10.3109/03014460.2015.1013987

DO - 10.3109/03014460.2015.1013987

M3 - Journal article

VL - 43

SP - 42

EP - 49

JO - Annals of Human Biology

JF - Annals of Human Biology

SN - 0301-4460

IS - 1

ER -

ID: 51558538