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β-Blocker-Associated Risks in Patients With Uncomplicated Hypertension Undergoing Noncardiac Surgery

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IMPORTANCE: Perioperative β-blocker strategies are important to reduce risks of adverse events. Effectiveness and safety may differ according to patients' baseline risk.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs) associated with long-term β-blocker therapy in patients with uncomplicated hypertension undergoing noncardiac surgery.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Association study based on in-hospital records and out-of-hospital pharmacotherapy use using a Danish nationwide cohort of patients with uncomplicated hypertension treated with at least 2 antihypertensive drugs (β-blockers, thiazides, calcium antagonists, or renin-angiotensin system [RAS] inhibitors) undergoing noncardiac surgery between 2005 and 2011.

INTERVENTIONS: Various antihypertensive treatment regimens, chosen as part of usual care.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Thirty-day risk of MACEs (cardiovascular death, nonfatal ischemic stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction) and all-cause mortality, assessed using multivariable logistic regression models and adjusted numbers needed to harm (NNH).

RESULTS: The baseline characteristics of the 14 644 patients who received β-blockers (65% female, mean [SD] age, 66.1 [12.0] years) were similar to those of the 40 676 patients who received other antihypertensive drugs (57% female, mean [SD] age, 65.9 [11.8] years). Thirty-day MACEs occurred in 1.3% of patients treated with β-blockers compared with 0.8% of patients not treated with β-blockers (P < .001). β-Blocker use was associated with increased risks of MACEs in 2-drug combinations with RAS inhibitors (odds ratio [OR], 2.16 [95% CI, 1.54-3.04]), calcium antagonists (OR, 2.17 [95% CI, 1.48-3.17]), and thiazides (OR, 1.56 [95% CI, 1.10-2.22]), compared with the reference combination of RAS inhibitors and thiazides. Results were similar for all-cause mortality. Risk of MACEs associated with β-blocker use seemed especially pronounced for patients at least 70 years old (number needed to harm [NNH], 140 [95% CI, 86-364]), for men (NNH, 142 [95% CI, 93-195]), and for patients undergoing acute surgery (NNH, 97 [95% CI, 57-331]), compared with patients younger than 70 years, women, and patients undergoing elective surgery, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Antihypertensive treatment with a β-blocker may be associated with increased risks of perioperative MACEs and all-cause mortality in patients with uncomplicated hypertension.

TidsskriftJAMA Internal Medicine
Udgave nummer12
Sider (fra-til)1923-31
Antal sider9
StatusUdgivet - 1 dec. 2015

ID: 45864340