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Autophagy is affected in patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis: an involvement in vacuolar myopathy?

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Hypokalemic periodic paralysis is an autosomal dominant, rare disorder caused by variants in the genes for voltage-gated calcium channel CaV1.1 (CACNA1S) and NaV1.4 (SCN4A). Patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis may suffer from periodic paralysis alone, periodic paralysis co-existing with permanent weakness or permanent weakness alone. Hypokalemic periodic paralysis has been known to be associated with vacuolar myopathy for decades, and that vacuoles are a universal feature regardless of phenotype. Hence, we wanted to investigate the nature and cause of the vacuoles. Fourteen patients with the p.R528H variation in the CACNA1S gene was included in the study. Histology, immunohistochemistry and transmission electron microscopy was used to assess general histopathology, ultrastructure and pattern of expression of proteins related to muscle fibres and autophagy. Western blotting and real-time PCR was used to determine the expression levels of proteins and mRNA of the proteins investigated in immunohistochemistry. Histology and transmission electron microscopy revealed heterogenous vacuoles containing glycogen, fibrils and autophagosomes. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated autophagosomes and endosomes arrested at the pre-lysosome fusion stage. Expression analysis showed a significant decrease in levels of proteins an mRNA involved in autophagy in patients, suggesting a systemic effect. However, activation level of the master regulator of autophagy gene transcription, TFEB, did not differ between patients and controls, suggesting competing control over autophagy gene transcription by nutritional status and calcium concentration, both controlling TFEB activity. The findings suggest that patients with hypokalemic periodic paralysis have disrupted autophagic processing that contribute to the vacuoles seen in these patients.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
Artikelnummer109
TidsskriftActa neuropathologica communications
Vol/bind9
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)109
ISSN2051-5960
DOI
StatusUdgivet - 13 jun. 2021

ID: 70358129