Associations between hypoglycemia awareness status and symptoms of hypoglycemia among adults with type 1 or insulin-treated type 2 diabetes using the Hypo-METRICS smartphone application

Gilberte Martine-Edith*, Natalie Zaremba, Patrick Divilly, Uffe Søholm, Melanie Broadley, Petra Martina Baumann, Zeinab Mahmoudi, Mikel Gomes, Namam Ali, Evertine J Abbink, Bastiaan E de Galan, Julie Maria Bøggild Brøsen, Ulrik Pedersen-Bjergaard, Allan A Vaag, Rory McCrimmon, Eric Renard, Simon Heller, Mark Evans, Monika Cigler, Julia K MaderStephanie Amiel, Jane Speight, Frans Pouwer, Pratik Choudhary

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstract

Introduction: This study examined associations between hypoglycemia awareness status and hypoglycemia symptoms reported in real-time using the novel Hypoglycaemia-MEasurement, ThResholds and ImpaCtS (Hypo-METRICS) smartphone application (app) among adults with insulin-treated type 1 (T1D) or type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods: Adults who experienced at least one hypoglycemic episode in the previous 3 months were recruited to the Hypo-METRICS study. They prospectively reported hypoglycemia episodes using the app for 10 weeks. Any of eight hypoglycemia symptoms were considered present if intensity was rated between "A little bit" to "Very much" and absent if rated "Not at all." Associations between hypoglycemia awareness (as defined by Gold score) and hypoglycemia symptoms were modeled using mixed-effects binary logistic regression, adjusting for glucose monitoring method and diabetes duration. Results: Of 531 participants (48% T1D, 52% T2D), 45% were women, 91% white, and 59% used Flash or continuous glucose monitoring. Impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) was associated with lower odds of reporting autonomic symptoms than normal awareness of hypoglycemia (NAH) (T1D odds ratio [OR] 0.43 [95% confidence interval {CI} 0.25-0.73], P = 0.002); T2D OR 0.51 [95% CI 0.26-0.99], P = 0.048), with no differences in neuroglycopenic symptoms. In T1D, relative to NAH, IAH was associated with higher odds of reporting autonomic symptoms at a glucose concentration <54 than >70 mg/dL (OR 2.18 [95% CI 1.21-3.94], P = 0.010). Conclusion: The Hypo-METRICS app is sensitive to differences in hypoglycemia symptoms according to hypoglycemia awareness in both diabetes types. Given its high ecological validity and low recall bias, the app may be a useful tool in research and clinical settings. The clinical trial registration number is NCT04304963.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftDiabetes Technology & Therapeutics
ISSN1520-9156
DOI
StatusE-pub ahead of print - 21 mar. 2024

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