The article introduces the Parental Sensitivity Assessment Scale (PSAS) and examines the influence of the PSAS score and other factors on the general cognitive level in pre-school children born with very low birth weight (VLBW). McCarthy general cognitive index (GCI) was obtained for 102 VLBW and 92 normal birth weight (NBW) control children in Denmark in the mid-1980s. The mean ages of the two groups were 52.4 vs. 53.1 months. Parental sensitivity was assessed using PSAS. There was no significant difference in the mean PSAS score between the two birth weight groups (p > 0.3). Birth weight group (p < 0.001) and mother's schooling (p= 0.026) significantly correlated with GCI in the children. The PSAS score was highly significantly correlated to the variance of the GCI (p < 0.001), which was not explained by VLBW and mother's schooling. We found no interactional effect between parental sensitivity and birth weight group (p > 0.5) - the prematurely born children were not more affected by low parental sensitivity than were the control children.