Anogenital distance in healthy Infants:Method-, age- and sex-related reference ranges

Margit Bistrup Fischer, Marie Lindhardt Ljubicic, Casper P Hagen, Ajay Thankamony, Ken Ong, Ieuan Hughes, Tina Kold Jensen, Katharina M Main, Jørgen Holm Petersen, Alexander S Busch, Emmie N Upners, Sheela Sathyanarayana, Shanna H Swan, Anders Juul

12 Citationer (Scopus)


CONTEXT: The use of anogenital distance (AGD) in clinical and epidemiological settings is increasing; however, sex-specific reference data on AGD and data on longitudinal changes in AGD in children is scarce.

OBJECTIVE: To create age-, sex-, and method-related reference ranges of AGD in healthy boys and girls aged 0-24 months, to assess the age-related changes in AGD and to evaluate the 2 predominantly used methods of AGD measurement.

DESIGN: The International AGD consortium comprising 4 centers compiled data from 1 cross-sectional and 3 longitudinal cohort studies ( [NCT02497209]).

SETTING: All data were collected from population-based studies, recruiting from 4 maternity or obstetric centers (United States, Cambridge [United Kingdom], Odense, and Copenhagen [Denmark]).

SUBJECTS: This study included a total of 3705 healthy, mainly Caucasian children aged 0-24 months on whom 7295 measurements were recorded.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: AGDAS (ano-scrotal), AGDAF (ano-fourchette), AGDAP (ano-penile), AGDAC (ano-clitoral), AGD body size indices (weight, body mass index [BMI], body surface area, and length), and intra- and interobserver biases.

RESULTS: We created age-specific reference ranges by centers. We found that AGD increased from birth to 6 months of age and thereafter reached a plateau. Changes in AGD/BMI during the first year of life were minor (0-6% and 0-11% in boys and girls, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: Reference ranges for AGD can be used in future epidemiological research and may be utilized clinically to evaluate prenatal androgen action in differences-in-sex-development patients. The increase in AGD during the first year of life was age-related, while AGD/BMI was fairly stable. The TIDES and Cambridge methods were equally reproducible.

TidsskriftThe Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism
Udgave nummer9
Sider (fra-til)2996-3004
StatusUdgivet - 1 sep. 2020


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