This paper presents an optimal control approach to modeling effects of cardiovascular regulation during head-up tilt (HUT). Many patients who suffer from dizziness or light-headedness are administered a head-up tilt test to explore potential deficits within the autonomic control system, which maintains the cardiovascular system at homeostasis. This system is complex and difficult to study in vivo, and thus we propose to use mathematical modeling to achieve a better understanding of cardiovascular regulation during HUT. In particular, we show the feasibility of using optimal control theory to compute physiological control variables, vascular resistance and cardiac contractility, quantities that cannot be measured directly, but which are useful to assess the state of the cardiovascular system. A non-pulsatile lumped parameter model together with pseudo- and clinical data are utilized in the optimal control problem formulation. Results show that the optimal control approach can predict time-varying quantities regulated by the cardiovascular control system. Our results compare favorable to our previous study using a piecewise linear spline approach, less a priori knowledge is needed, and results were obtained at a significantly lower computational cost.
|Status||Udgivet - 2019|