Adverse effects of sodium-glucose cotransporter-2 inhibitors in patients with heart failure: a systematic review and meta-analysis

A Pozzi*, C Cirelli, A Merlo, F Rea, C Scangiuzzi, E Tavano, A Iorio, S L Kristensen, C Wong, A Iacovoni, G Corrado

*Corresponding author af dette arbejde

Abstract

Sodium-glucose cotransoporter-2 inhibitors (SGLT-2Is) improve prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients both with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). However, these drugs can have some side effects. To estimate the relative risk of side effects in HF patients treated with SGLT-2Is irrespective from left ventricular EF and setting (chronic and non-chronic HF). Five randomized controlled trials (RCTs) enrolling patients with HFrEF, 4 RCTs enrolling non-chronic HF, and 3 RCTs enrolling HFpEF were included. Among side effects, urinary infection, genital infection, acute kidney injury, diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, bone fractures, and amputations were considered in the analysis. Overall, 24,055 patients were included in the analysis: 9020 (38%) patients with HFrEF, 12,562 (52%) with HFpEF, and 2473 (10%) with non-chronic HF. There were no differences between SGLT-2Is and placebo in the risk to develop diabetic ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia, hyperkalemia, hypokalemia, bone fractures, and amputations. HFrEF patients treated with SGLT-2Is had a significant reduction of acute kidney injury (RR = 0.54 (95% CI 0.33-0.87), p = 0.011), whereas no differences have been reported in the HFpEF group (RR = 0.94 (95% CI 0.83-1.07), p = 0.348) and non-chronic HF setting (RR = 0.79 (95% CI 0.55-1.15), p = 0.214). A higher risk to develop genital infection (overall 2.57 (95% CI 1.82-3.63), p < 0.001) was found among patients treated with SGLT-2Is irrespective from EF (HFrEF: RR = 1.96 (95% CI 1.17-3.29), p = 0.011; HFpEF: RR = 3.04 (95% CI 1.88-4.90), p < 0.001). The risk to develop urinary infections was increased among SGLT-2I users in the overall population (RR = 1.13 (95% CI 1.00-1.28), p = 0.046) and in the HFpEF setting (RR = 1.19 (95% CI 1.02-1.38), p = 0.029), whereas no differences have been reported in HFrEF (RR = 1.05 (95% CI 0.81-1.36), p = 0.725) and in non-chronic HF setting (RR = 1.04 (95% CI 0.75-1.46), p = 0.806). SGLT-2Is increase the risk of urinary and genital infections in HF patients. In HFpEF patients, the treatment increases the risk of urinary infections compared to placebo, whereas SGLT-2Is reduce the risk of acute kidney disease in patients with HFrEF.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftHeart Failure Reviews
Vol/bind29
Udgave nummer1
Sider (fra-til)207-217
Antal sider11
ISSN1382-4147
DOI
StatusUdgivet - jan. 2024

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