PURPOSE: We conducted a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to evaluate the effectiveness of a single dose of preoperative antibiotic administered perorally, intravenously, intramuscularly, or topically for preventing infection and alveolar osteitis in lower third molar surgical extraction implying osteotomy.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Medline, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases were searched for RCTs until August 2015. The primary outcome measure was postoperative inflammatory reactions, with a subgroup analysis of surgical site infection (SSI) and alveolar osteitis. A risk-of-bias assessment of the included trials was done according to the Cochrane guidelines.
RESULTS: A total of 53 RCTs were identified; however, only 10 could be included in the present review. A meta-analysis of the 10 trials showed a statistically significant reduction in SSI and alveolar osteitis when antibiotics had been used (odds ratio [OR] = 0.30; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.19 to 0.47; P ≤ .00001). A subgroup meta-analysis of 6 trials showed that preoperative administration of antibiotics perorally or intravenously significantly reduced the incidence of SSI (OR = 0.19; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.45; P = .0002). A meta-analysis of 5 trials showed that 2 g of preoperative oral amoxicillin was able to reduce the incidence of SSI and the difference was statistically significant (OR = 0.22; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.59; P = .002). Seven trials reported on alveolar osteitis, 6 studies on oral use, 2 studies on amoxicillin, 2 on metronidazole, 2 on penicillin V, and 1 on the intravenous use of penicillin. The pooled results showed that preoperative antibiotics significantly reduced the prevalence of alveolar osteitis (OR = 0.35; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.96; P = .04). The subgroup analysis showed that penicillin V was effective in reducing the incidence of alveolar osteitis (OR = 0.1; 95% CI, 0.03 to 0.30; P ≤ .0001).
CONCLUSIONS: A single oral dose of 2 g of amoxicillin before lower third molar osteotomy surgical extraction significantly decreased the incidence of SSI. A single dose of 0.8 g of penicillin V before lower third molar osteotomy surgical extraction significantly decreased the incidence of alveolar osteitis.
|Tidsskrift||Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons|
|Status||Udgivet - 23 nov. 2015|