The type II collagen C-terminal pro-peptide is one of the most abundant polypeptides in cartilage. The purpose of this study was to develop a competitive chemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, CALC2, targeting this pro-peptide as a marker of cartilage formation. Technical assay parameters were evaluated. CALC2 level was measured after in vitro cleavage of recombinant type II collagen with bone morphogenetic protein-1 (BMP-1) and treatment of ex vivo human osteoarthritis (OA) cartilage explant model (HEX) with insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). Serum CALC2 levels were assessed in 18 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 19 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and 18 age- and sex-matched controls in cohort 1 and 8 patients with OA and 14 age- and sex-matched controls in cohort 2. Type II collagen cleavage with BMP-1 increased the CALC2 level. IGF-1 treatment increased the CALC2 levels in HEX compared with the untreated explants (p < 0.05). Results were confirmed using Western blot analysis. CALC2 levels were decreased in the patients with RA and AS compared with the healthy controls (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively). These findings indicate that CALC2 may be a novel biomarker of type II collagen formation. However, further preclinical and clinical studies are required to validate these findings.