A case of sarcoidosis and sarcoid granuloma, papillary carcinoma, and Graves' disease in the thyroid gland

T Zimmermann-Belsing, L Christensen, H S Hansen, J Kirkegaard, M Blichert-Toft, U Feldt-Rasmussen

Abstract

Sarcoidosis is a systemic chronic granulomatous disease of unknown etiology most commonly affecting young females. The disease was first described in the thyroid gland in 1938. Our patient, a 27-year-old male with known sarcoidosis, was referred to the National University Hospital for acute symptoms of thyrotoxicosis (weight loss of 6 kg, tremor, thyroid enlargement, and tachycardia). Laboratory findings showed suppressed serum thyrotropin (TSH, <0.03 mU/L [0.5-4.20]), increased total thyroxine (T4) (223 nmol/L, [60-140]), and triiodothyronine (T3) (8.5 nmol/L, [1.5-2.7]). Furthermore, Tc-99m pertechnetate scintigraphy disclosed diffuse accumulation of the isotope confirming the diagnosis of Graves' disease. During the next 18 months of antithyroid treatment (thiamazole, Thycapzol) hyperthyroidism was difficult to control, the thyroid gland gradually enlarged, and surgery was recommended. Initially, the patient declined surgery but after an additional 18 months, he accepted surgery. During the 36-month period of antithyroid drug treatment TSH was suppressed (<0.01 mU/L) and T3 often elevated despite high doses of thiamazole. Total thyroidectomy was performed, and histologic examination of the removed thyroid tissue confirmed the diagnosis of Graves' disease and also the presence of sarcoid granuloma and metastatic papillary adenocarcinoma with spread to neck lymph nodes. Four months later, a modified radical neck dissection was performed with removal of neck lymph nodes followed by external radiation therapy (2 Gy x 32 fractions to the neck). The concomitant presence of sarcoidosis, papillary carcinoma, and Graves' disease in a thyroid gland, to our knowledge, has not previously been described in the literature.

OriginalsprogEngelsk
TidsskriftThyroid : official journal of the American Thyroid Association
Vol/bind10
Udgave nummer3
Sider (fra-til)275-8
Antal sider4
ISSN1050-7256
DOI
StatusUdgivet - mar. 2000
Udgivet eksterntJa

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