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Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data

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Harvard

Virtanen, M, Jokela, M, Nyberg, ST, Madsen, IEH, Lallukka, T, Ahola, K, Alfredsson, L, Batty, GD, Bjorner, JB, Borritz, M, Burr, H, Casini, A, Clays, E, De Bacquer, D, Dragano, N, Erbel, R, Ferrie, JE, Fransson, EI, Hamer, M, Heikkilä, K, Jöckel, K-H, Kittel, F, Knutsson, A, Koskenvuo, M, Ladwig, K-H, Lunau, T, Nielsen, ML, Nordin, M, Oksanen, T, Pejtersen, J, Pentti, J, Rugulies, R, Salo, P, Schupp, J, Siegrist, J, Singh-Manoux, A, Steptoe, A, Suominen, SB, Theorell, T, Vahtera, J, Wagner, GG, Westerholm, PJM, Westerlund, H & Kivimäki, M 2015, 'Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data', BMJ, vol. 350, pp. g7772. https://doi.org/doi: 10.1136/bmj.g7772.

APA

Virtanen, M., Jokela, M., Nyberg, S. T., Madsen, I. E. H., Lallukka, T., Ahola, K., Alfredsson, L., Batty, G. D., Bjorner, J. B., Borritz, M., Burr, H., Casini, A., Clays, E., De Bacquer, D., Dragano, N., Erbel, R., Ferrie, J. E., Fransson, E. I., Hamer, M., ... Kivimäki, M. (2015). Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. BMJ, 350, g7772. https://doi.org/doi: 10.1136/bmj.g7772.

CBE

Virtanen M, Jokela M, Nyberg ST, Madsen IEH, Lallukka T, Ahola K, Alfredsson L, Batty GD, Bjorner JB, Borritz M, Burr H, Casini A, Clays E, De Bacquer D, Dragano N, Erbel R, Ferrie JE, Fransson EI, Hamer M, Heikkilä K, Jöckel K-H, Kittel F, Knutsson A, Koskenvuo M, Ladwig K-H, Lunau T, Nielsen ML, Nordin M, Oksanen T, Pejtersen J, Pentti J, Rugulies R, Salo P, Schupp J, Siegrist J, Singh-Manoux A, Steptoe A, Suominen SB, Theorell T, Vahtera J, Wagner GG, Westerholm PJM, Westerlund H, Kivimäki M. 2015. Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. BMJ. 350:g7772. https://doi.org/doi: 10.1136/bmj.g7772.

MLA

Vancouver

Author

Virtanen, Marianna ; Jokela, Markus ; Nyberg, Solja T ; Madsen, Ida E H ; Lallukka, Tea ; Ahola, Kirsi ; Alfredsson, Lars ; Batty, G David ; Bjorner, Jakob B ; Borritz, Marianne ; Burr, Hermann ; Casini, Annalisa ; Clays, Els ; De Bacquer, Dirk ; Dragano, Nico ; Erbel, Raimund ; Ferrie, Jane E ; Fransson, Eleonor I ; Hamer, Mark ; Heikkilä, Katriina ; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz ; Kittel, France ; Knutsson, Anders ; Koskenvuo, Markku ; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz ; Lunau, Thorsten ; Nielsen, Martin L ; Nordin, Maria ; Oksanen, Tuula ; Pejtersen, Jan ; Pentti, Jaana ; Rugulies, Reiner ; Salo, Paula ; Schupp, Jürgen ; Siegrist, Johannes ; Singh-Manoux, Archana ; Steptoe, Andrew ; Suominen, Sakari B ; Theorell, Töres ; Vahtera, Jussi ; Wagner, Gert G ; Westerholm, Peter J M ; Westerlund, Hugo ; Kivimäki, Mika. / Long working hours and alcohol use : systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data. In: BMJ. 2015 ; Vol. 350. pp. g7772.

Bibtex

@article{428adacf52934e0d959697f1730c9370,
title = "Long working hours and alcohol use: systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data",
abstract = "OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use.DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies.REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression.RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate.CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.",
author = "Marianna Virtanen and Markus Jokela and Nyberg, {Solja T} and Madsen, {Ida E H} and Tea Lallukka and Kirsi Ahola and Lars Alfredsson and Batty, {G David} and Bjorner, {Jakob B} and Marianne Borritz and Hermann Burr and Annalisa Casini and Els Clays and {De Bacquer}, Dirk and Nico Dragano and Raimund Erbel and Ferrie, {Jane E} and Fransson, {Eleonor I} and Mark Hamer and Katriina Heikkil{\"a} and Karl-Heinz J{\"o}ckel and France Kittel and Anders Knutsson and Markku Koskenvuo and Karl-Heinz Ladwig and Thorsten Lunau and Nielsen, {Martin L} and Maria Nordin and Tuula Oksanen and Jan Pejtersen and Jaana Pentti and Reiner Rugulies and Paula Salo and J{\"u}rgen Schupp and Johannes Siegrist and Archana Singh-Manoux and Andrew Steptoe and Suominen, {Sakari B} and T{\"o}res Theorell and Jussi Vahtera and Wagner, {Gert G} and Westerholm, {Peter J M} and Hugo Westerlund and Mika Kivim{\"a}ki",
note = "{\textcopyright} Virtanen et al 2015.",
year = "2015",
doi = "doi: 10.1136/bmj.g7772.",
language = "English",
volume = "350",
pages = "g7772",
journal = "BMJ",
issn = "1756-1833",
publisher = "B M J Group",

}

RIS

TY - JOUR

T1 - Long working hours and alcohol use

T2 - systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data

AU - Virtanen, Marianna

AU - Jokela, Markus

AU - Nyberg, Solja T

AU - Madsen, Ida E H

AU - Lallukka, Tea

AU - Ahola, Kirsi

AU - Alfredsson, Lars

AU - Batty, G David

AU - Bjorner, Jakob B

AU - Borritz, Marianne

AU - Burr, Hermann

AU - Casini, Annalisa

AU - Clays, Els

AU - De Bacquer, Dirk

AU - Dragano, Nico

AU - Erbel, Raimund

AU - Ferrie, Jane E

AU - Fransson, Eleonor I

AU - Hamer, Mark

AU - Heikkilä, Katriina

AU - Jöckel, Karl-Heinz

AU - Kittel, France

AU - Knutsson, Anders

AU - Koskenvuo, Markku

AU - Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

AU - Lunau, Thorsten

AU - Nielsen, Martin L

AU - Nordin, Maria

AU - Oksanen, Tuula

AU - Pejtersen, Jan

AU - Pentti, Jaana

AU - Rugulies, Reiner

AU - Salo, Paula

AU - Schupp, Jürgen

AU - Siegrist, Johannes

AU - Singh-Manoux, Archana

AU - Steptoe, Andrew

AU - Suominen, Sakari B

AU - Theorell, Töres

AU - Vahtera, Jussi

AU - Wagner, Gert G

AU - Westerholm, Peter J M

AU - Westerlund, Hugo

AU - Kivimäki, Mika

N1 - © Virtanen et al 2015.

PY - 2015

Y1 - 2015

N2 - OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use.DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies.REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression.RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate.CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.

AB - OBJECTIVE: To quantify the association between long working hours and alcohol use.DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of published studies and unpublished individual participant data.DATA SOURCES: A systematic search of PubMed and Embase databases in April 2014 for published studies, supplemented with manual searches. Unpublished individual participant data were obtained from 27 additional studies.REVIEW METHODS: The search strategy was designed to retrieve cross sectional and prospective studies of the association between long working hours and alcohol use. Summary estimates were obtained with random effects meta-analysis. Sources of heterogeneity were examined with meta-regression.RESULTS: Cross sectional analysis was based on 61 studies representing 333 693 participants from 14 countries. Prospective analysis was based on 20 studies representing 100 602 participants from nine countries. The pooled maximum adjusted odds ratio for the association between long working hours and alcohol use was 1.11 (95% confidence interval 1.05 to 1.18) in the cross sectional analysis of published and unpublished data. Odds ratio of new onset risky alcohol use was 1.12 (1.04 to 1.20) in the analysis of prospective published and unpublished data. In the 18 studies with individual participant data it was possible to assess the European Union Working Time Directive, which recommends an upper limit of 48 hours a week. Odds ratios of new onset risky alcohol use for those working 49-54 hours and ≥55 hours a week were 1.13 (1.02 to 1.26; adjusted difference in incidence 0.8 percentage points) and 1.12 (1.01 to 1.25; adjusted difference in incidence 0.7 percentage points), respectively, compared with working standard 35-40 hours (incidence of new onset risky alcohol use 6.2%). There was no difference in these associations between men and women or by age or socioeconomic groups, geographical regions, sample type (population based v occupational cohort), prevalence of risky alcohol use in the cohort, or sample attrition rate.CONCLUSIONS: Individuals whose working hours exceed standard recommendations are more likely to increase their alcohol use to levels that pose a health risk.

U2 - doi: 10.1136/bmj.g7772.

DO - doi: 10.1136/bmj.g7772.

M3 - Journal article

C2 - 25587065

VL - 350

SP - g7772

JO - BMJ

JF - BMJ

SN - 1756-1833

ER -

ID: 44987034